Call by Value and Call by Reference in C

Presently equipped with the information of pointers lets move our mission to learn C programming one stage forward.

Today I will inform you regarding the subsequent development highlight of capacities for example call by worth and call by reference in C.

Intentionally or accidentally we have utilized the call by worth element in numerous projects till now.

So it will be straightforward the rationale behind it. On the opposite side call by reference is utilized with pointers.

Call by Value in C

In past instructional exercises, I educated you concerning genuine and formal contentions (parameters).

In this strategy, at whatever point we make changes in formal contentions then it doesn’t change the incentive in real contentions.

void fun(int a);
void main()
 int a=10;
 printf(" Before callingn a=%d",a);
 fun(a); //here a is actual argument or parameter
 printf("nn After callingn a=%d",a);
void fun(int a)
 a=a+5; //here a is formal argument or parameter
 printf("nn In function fun()n a=%d",a);


Before Calling

in function fun()

After Calling

As its name recommends, call by worth element means calling the capacity and passing a few qualities in it.

The estimations of real contentions are duplicated into formal contentions. We have done it so often until now. Let’s take a crisp guide to comprehend it rapidly.


The program code is practically plain as day. First I have printed the estimation of variable a preceding calling of capacity and afterwards, I have passed one contention in the capacity fun().

The estimation of variable an of principle() is duplicated into variable an of capacity fun().

Presently I have changed the estimation of variable a by including 5 in it. After that, I have printed the variable an in work fun().

Finally the estimation of variable an is again imprinted in primary().

You can see in yield that the change that was done in factor an in work fun() isn’t influenced the estimation of variable an in fundamental().

Call by Reference in C

As I told before while applying call by a worth component of capacities we can’t change the qualities in real contentions by changing the qualities in formal contentions.

Commonly we stick in a condition when we have to change the estimations of real contentions in some other capacity. In those cases, we use call by reference strategy.

In this technique, we will send the location of factors to the capacity. Any adjustments in formal contentions cause a change in real contentions.

Let’s assemble a basic program to comprehend this theme.


In the first place, I have pronounced the capacity fun() with its contention as whole number pointer.

In the capacity call, I have passed the location of variable an as opposed to passing its worth.

Presently I have the location in pointer variable an of capacity fun().

At that point, I have done a few changes in the pointer variable and printed its worth.

At long last, the variable an is again imprinted in fundamental()

You can find in the yield that the change is done in the pointer variable an of capacity fun() causes a change in factor an of fundamental().

You may confront trouble in understanding the idea of the call by reference. You can ask your inquiries by remarking underneath.


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